This is used to illustrate and address the issues raised by Tol that are relevant to our main conclusion. Cambridge University Press.
An accurate understanding of scientific consensus, and the ability to recognize attempts to undermine it, are important for public climate literacy. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Retrieved March 8,
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28/09/2014 · Oreskes and Conway do acknowledge that they are dealing with doubt, at least in a superficial sense, but they portray this doubt as insincere. Doubt in their story is primarily a deceptive trick used for political purposes or to protect profits. This is an even less flattering view of climate skeptics. Instead of being merely misguided ...Estimated Reading Time: 9 mins
Paradoxes of Oreskes & Conway’s “Merchants of Doubt ...
07/03/2021 · For example: 1. According to Oreskes & Conway, we should listen to the oceanographer, Roger Revelle, because he was the director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography from 1950-1964. But, we should ignore Bill Nierenberg, the director of the Scripps Institution from 1965-1986, because he was a physicist. 2.
Oreskes and Conway write that a handful of politically conservative scientists, with strong ties to particular industries, have "played a disproportionate role in debates about controversial questions". The authors write that this has in "deliberate obfuscation" of the issues which has had an influence on public opinion and policy-making.. The book criticizes the so-called Merchants.
Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming is a non-fiction book by American historians of science Naomi Oreskes and Erik M.
It identifies parallels between the global warming controversy and earlier controversies over tobacco smoking , acid rain , DDT , and the hole in the ozone layer. Oreskes and Conway write that in each case "keeping the controversy alive" by spreading doubt and confusion after a scientific consensus had been reached was the basic strategy of those opposing action.
Another reviewer saw the book as his choice for best science book of the year. Oreskes and Conway write that a handful of politically conservative scientists, with strong ties to particular industries, have "played a disproportionate role in debates about controversial questions". The book criticizes the so-called Merchants of Doubt, some predominantly American science key players, above all Bill Nierenberg , Fred Seitz , and Fred Singer. The book says that these scientists have challenged and diluted the scientific consensus in the various fields, as of the dangers of smoking , the effects of acid rain, the existence of the " ozone hole ", and the existence of anthropogenic climate change.
Marshall Institute in the United States. Funded by corporations and conservative foundations , these organizations have opposed many forms of state intervention or regulation of U. The book lists similar tactics in each case: "discredit the science, disseminate false information, spread confusion, and promote doubt".
The book states that Seitz, Singer, Nierenberg and Robert Jastrow were all fiercely anti-communist and they viewed government regulation as a step towards socialism and communism. The authors argue that, with the collapse of the Soviet Union , they looked for another great threat to free market capitalism and found it in environmentalism. They feared that an over-reaction to environmental problems would lead to heavy-handed government intervention in the marketplace and intrusion into people's lives.
Oreskes and Conway state: "small numbers of people can have large, negative impacts, especially if they are organised, determined and have access to power". Philip Kitcher in Science says that Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway are "two outstanding historians". Kitcher says that the apparently harsh claims against Nierenberg, Seitz, and Singer are "justified through a powerful dissection of the ways in which prominent climate scientists, such as Roger Revelle and Ben Santer , were exploited or viciously attacked in the press".
Oreskes and Conway are seen to demonstrate that the doubt merchants are not "objective scientists" as the term is popularly understood.
Instead, they are "science-speaking mercenaries" hired by corporations to process numbers to prove that the corporations' products are safe and useful. Buchanan says they are salesmen, not scientists. Bud Ward published a review of the book in The Yale Forum on Climate and the Media. He said, however, that the climate change chapter is only 50 pages long, and recommends several other books for readers who want to get a broader picture of this aspect: Jim Hoggan 's Climate Cover-Up , George Monbiot 's Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning and Ross Gelbspan 's The Heat is On and Boiling Point.
England also said that there is little coverage about the millions of dollars which Exxon Mobil has put into funding groups actively involved in promoting climate change denial and doubt. A review in The Economist calls this a powerful book which articulates the politics involved and the degree to which scientists have sometimes manufactured and exaggerated environmental uncertainties, but opines that the authors fail to fully explain how environmental action has still often proved possible despite countervailing factors.
Robert N. Proctor , who coined the term " agnotology " to describe the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, wrote in American Scientist that Merchants of Doubt is a detailed and artfully written book. He set it in the context of other books which cover the "history of manufactured ignorance":  David Michaels 's Doubt is their Product , Chris Mooney 's The Republican War on Science , David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz's Deceit and Denial , and his own book Cancer Wars Robin McKie in The Guardian states that Oreskes and Conway deserve considerable praise for exposing the influence of a small group of Cold War ideologues.
McKie says that Merchants of Doubt includes detailed notes on all sources used, is carefully paced, and is "my runaway contender for best science book of the year". The book depicts special interests and contrarians misleading the public as being mainly responsible for stopping action on policy.
He says this shows a lack of basic understanding of the political process and the mechanisms of knowledge policy , because the authors assume that public policy would follow on from an understanding of the science. While the book provides "all the [formal] hallmarks of science", Grundmann sees it less as a scholarly work than a passionate attack and overall as a problematic book.
Naomi Oreskes is Professor of History and Science Studies at Harvard University. She has degrees in geological science and a Ph. From Transformations: Studies in the History of Science and Technology. Edited by Naomi Oreskes and John Krige.
Investigations of how the global Cold War shaped national scientific and technological practices in fields from biomedicine to rocket science. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it.
The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state.
The contributors also consider to what extent the changes to science and technology practices in this era were produced by the specific politics, anxieties, and aspirations of the Cold War. Contributors Elena Aronova, Erik M. Conway, Angela N. Creager, David Kaiser, John Krige, Naomi Oreskes, George Reisch, Sigrid Schmalzer, Sonja D. Schmid, Matthew Shindell, Asif A. Siddiqi, Zuoyue Wang, Benjamin Wilson. Kenneth L. Ursula Klein.
Merchants of Doubt - Wikipedia
Oreskes and Conway write that a handful of politically conservative scientists, with strong ties to particular industries, have "played a disproportionate role in debates about controversial questions". The authors write that this has resulted in "deliberate obfuscation" of the issues which has had an influence on public opinion and policy-making.. The book criticizes the so-called Merchants ...
Mar 27, · 2 authors in an MLA Works Cited entry Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik M. Conway. The Collapse of Western Civilization. Columbia UP, When there are three or more authors, only list the first author, followed by a comma and “et al.”. Apr 13, · Therefore, it should come as no surprise that the common argument used in contrarian op-eds about climate change from to was that there is no scientific consensus on human-caused global warming (Elsasser and Dunlap , Oreskes and Conway ). Naomi Oreskes is Professor of History and Science Studies at the University of California, San Diego. Her essay "Beyond the Ivory Tower" was a milestone in the fight against global warming denial. Erik Conway is the resident historian at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming
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